Founded in 1787, the University of Pittsburgh (PITT) is one of the nation's oldest institutions of higher education. PITT is a state-related research university, and is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU), which comprises 63 preeminent doctorate-granting research institutions in North America. PITT investigators defeated polio, unlocked the secrets of DNA, led the world in organ transplantation, and pioneered TV and heavier-than-air flight. PITT is affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), a $23 billion health care provider and insurer. UPMC is inventing new models of patient-centered, cost-effective, accountable care and is the largest nongovernmental employer in Pennsylvania.